Borinda fungosa

Culms exposed to sun turn to chocolate brown color.

Culms exposed to sun turn to chocolate brown color.

Borinda is genus of a clumping bamboo that can grow considerably higher and thicker than Fargesia, but lucks it’s cold hardiness. Most of Borinda bamboos are cold hardy to around -10C. Borinda fungosa can be very vigorous grower, even when it’s just a small seedling. If it gets proper position to thrive, it tends to upsize fast. Bamboo has pachymorph rhizomes and forms dense clumps of yellowish culms. When Borinda fungosa gets enough sun exposure, culms can get nice looking dark brown color. Despite the color change, it can’t handle too much or too strong sun exposure. Borinda fungosa has strong tendency to ‘weep’, because soon after it branches out, weight of large amount of leaves start to bend the culm downwards.

 

Basic information:

Height: 3 to 4 m
Culm diameter: 2 cm
Hardiness: -8 to -10 °C
Characteristics: cold sensitive, vigorous, clumping bamboo, hairy shoots, sheathes and leaves, heat sensitive – not performing well in sunny locations

Seeds germinated in only a couple of days. Out of ten seedlings, two managed to sprout and both survived first couple of years. One of them was pampered from the very beginning and it showed how prolific and vigorous growth it is capable of, the other got almost killed on many occasions, but later, when placed outdoors, turned out as much better performer.

Three weeks old Borinda fungosa seedling

Three weeks old Borinda fungosa seedling

2 months old Borinda fungosa seedling

2 months old Borinda fungosa seedling

3 months old seedling

3 months old seedling

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Borinda fungosa seedlings are growing fast and tend to upsize rapidly. Leaves are covered with hair which is very evident while the seedlings are still young – with larger plant, you can hardly notice that leaf characteristic. Shooting cycles were around three weeks apart at the beginning. With every shooting cycle, some kind of deficiency related leaf damage appeared. That problem went away when the plant got better established and could provide more nutrients to the upcoming shoots. Shooting almost completely stopped during the summer, and later happened again in early fall. Because it’s not cold hardy as some other bamboos, late shoots usually die off completely during the winter even if they are exposed only to a minor freezing.

3 months old Borinda fungosa

3 months old Borinda fungosa

When exposed to full sun, B. fungosa tends to fold it's leaves to prevent water loss.

When exposed to full sun, B. fungosa tends to fold it’s leaves to prevent water loss.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

In the spring, it got attacked by European Corn Borer. Nearly all the early spring shoots were attacked and there was almost no upsize. Each of the shoots had caterpillar inside, which managed to eat most of the shoots all the way down to the soil level.

European corn borer from one of the destroyed shoots.

European corn borer from one of the destroyed shoots.

Shoot got eaten from inside out.

Shoot got eaten from inside out.

Completely devastated shoot

Completely devastated shoot

Hair on very large culm sheath that hardly allows node to come out

Hair on very large culm sheath that hardly allows node to come out

That's the reason it's called 'Chocolate Bamboo'.

That’s the reason it’s called ‘Chocolate Bamboo’.

 

Loosing most of the culms, seedling again started to look promising.

Loosing most of the culms, seedling again started to look promising.

Hairy culm sheath and node

'Head' of fungosa shoot

‘Head’ of fungosa shoot

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Shoots are covered with dark hair and only a short portion of culm appears from it’s large culm sheath. It soon gets pushed away by numerous branches, growing from each of the nodes, turn to straw color and eventually falls of. Shoots appear hollow at first, because of it’s extra large culm sheathes. After a while, firs blades appear and growing shoots starts looking more similar to other bamboos.

Borinda fungosa in the fall, loosing some of it's leaves.

Borinda fungosa in the fall, loosing some of it’s leaves.

Borinda fungosa seedling appears to be one of bamboos, that loves to start shooting in the fall, when other bamboos usually already start with winter preparations. Around here, that usually means that new shoots are all killed by first couple of frosts. It’s also one of bamboos that gets a lot of yellow leaves in the fall which makes it stand out even more.

 
 
 

Young Borinda fungosa shoot

Young Borinda fungosa shoot

Borinda fungosa branching out in early autumn

Borinda fungosa branching out in early autumn

New culms are covered with layer of wax coating

New culms are covered with layer of wax coating

New Borinda fungosa culms

New Borinda fungosa culms

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

In the fall, a lot of leaves turn yellow and falls off.

In the fall, a lot of leaves start turning yellow and drop.


'Explosive' branching of Borinda fungosa.

‘Explosive’ branching of Borinda fungosa.

Colorful culm with fresh set of branches.

Colorful culm with fresh set of branches.

During cold winter 2014/2015 when temperatures plunged down to -19°C, I managed to keep it well protected under thick pile of snow that fell just before the worst cold arrived. Culms were already thick, so it wasn’t the easiest job to bend the whole plant closer to the ground, but I managed to tarp it down and cover it with snow. It worked remarkably well and it not only survived the winter, it actually kept most of its foliage.

Borinda fungosa in the background.

Borinda fungosa in the background.

New shoots emerging around the clump. Interestingly, more shoots started on the northern side of the clump.

New shoots emerging around the clump. Interestingly, more shoots started on the northern side of the clump.


 

Like every fall,  large colorful shoots started to appear

Like every fall, large colorful shoots started to appear

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Phyllostachys Pubescens Moso

Phyllostachys pubescens is the largest running bamboo that grows well in temperate climate. Because of sporadic flowering that is happening all the time, seed availability isn’t as problematic as with other bamboos.

Several months old Moso seedling

Several months old Moso seedling

Basic information:
Height: 25 m
Culm diameter: 18 cm
Hardiness: -18 °C
Characteristics: fuzzy culms, Large leaves as seedling, small leaves when mature, upright growth, strong culms, running bamboo, sun tolerant

First package of seeds gave poor results with 0% germination rate. Not even one of the seeds germinated, because they were most likely old and had lost their viability. Bamboo is known to loose viability with age. One way to keep the seeds viable is by keeping them in the refrigerator. When it got apparent that all seeds were dead and I couldn’t get even one single seedling out of whole batch, I decided to order another package from different supplier, that claimed to have fresh seeds. This time, germination rate was quite good and I had more seedlings that I could took care of.

Sprouting of Moso seed

Sprouting of Moso seed

Phyllostachys pubescens seeds were placed into warm water for 24 hours after I received them. Some of the seeds sank to the bottom, and some floated even after soaking in water. Those that were floating were either dead or empty – grains must have fell out already.
I used wet paper towel to keep the seeds moist. Seeds were placed into zip lock bag to prevent the paper towel to dry out. By checking seeds on a daily basis, I could see when they began to germinate. If mold appears on paper towel or on seeds, they should be rinsed with water and placed into fresh towel. Paper towel have to be moist but not wet. It’s best to squeeze out almost all the water, before finally placing it into zip lock bag.

New Phyllostachys pubescens seedling

New Phyllostachys pubescens seedling

Healthy young seedling

Healthy young bamboo seedling

At first, seedlings were growing fast and seemed very healthy.  Soil needs to be well drained, or else seedlings fail at the very beginning. Tiny pubescens are delicate when it comes to watering. It’s usually better option to wait a couple of days longer before watering than overwatering. It’s also good to keep the seedlings in smaller pots and re-pot them as they grow bigger. Larger pots are harder to control.

Soon after bamboos started shooting for the first time, problems started to appear. Without any warning leaves started to appear chlorotic.  Yellow stripes started to appear between leaf veins. Not even one seedling was safe from getting nutrition deficient. Adding liquid fertilizer did not seem to help much after the deficiency was spotted, but if added before it happened, everything seemed OK.

First signs of nutrient deficiency

First signs of nutrient deficiency

Yellow striping became apparent

Yellow striping became apparent

Before taking bamboos outside in the spring, they were growing slower, but appeared to be healthier. Outside, rain, strong wind and sun exposure made them suffer. Despite everything, they started to grow faster with each additional leaf. Seedlings soon grew into nice little clusters of culms. Every shooting cycle there were more and more new shoots that were larger in diameter and height.

Getting bushy!

Getting bushy!

Stunted growth

Stunted growth

Fly on deficient bamboo

Fly on deficient bamboo

Most of the seedlings died during the hot summer, because I never protected pots from overheating. Surviving seedlings became chlorotic, their growth was stunted, new shoots started to abort soon after emerging, growing tips were not unfolding, … All symptoms of nutrient deficiency, but it could not be prevented. Adding fertilizers did not help and I tried foliar feeding, slow release fertilizer, liquid fertilizer, manure  and mulch. Only one seedling started shooting in the fall, others remained poor performers even after they got planted outside into the ground.
During the first year, I learned that pots have to get buried into the soil to prevent pot soil overheating. I also learned that I used way too much peat moss that acted as a sponge, locking all the water inside the pot and drowning the roots.

Moso started running!

Moso started running!

All seedlings were placed into the ground the following year, the best looking one remained in it’s pot, others were placed directly into the ground. It didn’t help them much, they are still performing poorly in their third year. After taking care of the pots, there were no more deficiency issues. During the second year, the best looking seedling (that was still inside it’s pot) started growing rhizomes and escaped the pot on several places. Small but healthy looking clump was not growing much during the summer, but there was a lot of underground activity. In the autumn, I took off one of the escaping rhizome that poked out as whip shoot and successfully tried making a division.

After winter, seedling remained at the same spot, with some minor winter damage, but most of the rhizomes and culms remained alive. There was some leaf and growing tips damage. Thanks to a lot of snow, soil was well protected from cold temperatures.

1 year old seedling

1 year old seedling

One year old moso wilting leaves during hot suny day

One year old moso wilting leaves during hot suny day

Almost mature looking shoot

Almost mature looking shoot

Red shoot

Red shoot

Spring variegation

Spring variegation

Purple and variegated :)

Purple and variegated 🙂

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Shooting started in the end of April 2013. The escaping rhizome put out 4 shoots, yet 2 of them aborted soon after they emerged. Shoots on that escaping rhizome were maturer than those inside the pot. Some of the shoots appeared red with yellow leaves. Abundance of shoots made it and only a couple of them aborted. When shoots started branching out, all new shoots started showing variegation. The red shoots were more variegated than others that appeared green from the start. Variegation completely dissappeared after a couple of weeks and will most likely return next spring.

Fuzzy node

Fuzzy node

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

In late August, fat rhizomes started to crawl around the escaped culms which means there will be quite an upsize when buds on those rhizomes mature. Inside the pot, there are numerous whip shoots that might harden enough before the first frost, but will most likely fail to do so in time.

Large culm got yellow after a couple of months. Usually juvenile culms remained green.

Large culm got yellow after a couple of months. Usually juvenile culms remained green.

Bamboo managed to leaf out completely and sized up considerably.

Bamboo managed to leaf out completely and sized up considerably.

New rhizomes are thick and they tend to spread their roots quite fast. I’ll try to make sure they are well protected during the winter, like they were last year.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

First 2014 shoots

First 2014 shoots

Warmer days and first rain after a couple of weeks of sunny weather triggered first shoots to start poking out of the soil. Some old whip shoots came alive, and many red colored new shoots started emerging from the potted part of the plant. Escaped portion of the bamboo remained seemingly dormant for some more time.

Moso shoots that finally started to look a bit more mature.

Moso shoots that finally started to look a bit more mature.

Moso in the end of October.

Moso in the end of October.

Autumn sun can hardly penetrate dense canopy.

Autumn sun can hardly penetrate dense canopy.

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Chimonocalamus pallens

 

One month old seedling

One month old seedling

I received a package of Chimonocalamus pallens seeds as a gift from a friend with a flowering bamboo. If you are reading this, thank you again!

This bamboo doesn’t like cold winters, which are common around here. That means it’s most likely condemned to become an indoor plant that will get outside in late spring and back inside when it gets cooler in autumn. Like most bamboos, Chimonocalamus pallens likes moist but not wet soil. It tolerates strong sun and should be quite heat tolerant, which could prove useful during the summer months.

 

Basic information:

Height: 8 m
Culm diameter: 3.8 cm
Hardiness: -9 °C
Characteristics: node thorns, upright growth, clumping bamboo, sun tolerant
Newly emerged bamboo

Newly emerged bamboo

Seeds started germinating on August 26th (2012). Out of 5 seeds from first batch, 3 managed to poke out of the soil after germination. Sadly, two of the seedlings died shortly after, due to slug damage. I knew I should sterilize the soil before I planted them … At first, pallens seedlings are slow to get going, but with time, growth rate accelerates and new shoots become more and more vigorous.

Thorns started to form around the Chimonocalamus pallens node

Thorns started to form around the node

Compared to Phyllostachys pubescens Moso seedlings or Borinda fungosa, which I also tried growing from seeds, Chimonocalamus pallens needed much more attention. It might be soil related, but it seems that if Moso seedlings are picky when it comes to nutrients and nutrient availability, pallens is even worse. After first couple of leaves, they begin to look pale and started loosing old leaves. Most of the seedlings had shown old culm death after they managed to shoot and despite that, they started growing faster. When shooting started, seedlings had shown leaf deformations, similar to those on Borinda fungosa seedlings. Culm tips on old stems often died off to provide more nutrients to newly growing shoots. Adding fertilizer seems to improve this deficiency. I tried adding Epsom salts, iron oxide (water with rust particles in it) and common water soluble liquid fertilizer with high nitrogen content. Foilage got greener and plants looked healthier. Growth, however, didn’t accelerate.

Seedlings were placed outside after it got warmer, but soon, they got hit by strong wind, hail, torrential rain, strong sun and unbelievably cold weather. Growth stunted completely, but they should start growing again when things get back to normal.

Pallens seedlings in July 2013

Pallens seedlings in July 2013

Seedling in July 2013

Seedling in July 2013

With warmer summer weather, seedlings started to take off, but were then again stunted by heat and strong sun exposure. Seedlings were placed into protected place in full sun, with added protective mesh that blocked direct sun. Most of them had shown little if any stress, but overall, there was not much growth during the summer. Things changed again when temperatures dropped again and rain started to fall on a regular daily basis. New shoots appeared on most of the seedlings in early September. When compared to other bamboo seedlings I’ve grown, these had shown much less vigor during their first year. Test seedling got nearly killed during the summer, but it started showing signs of life after I placed it out of the pot into shaded spot. I will most likely leave it there for the winter to see how cold hardy it actually is.

Using protection from strong summer sun, seedlings got their dark green color and started shooting vigorously.

Using protection from strong summer sun, seedlings got their dark green color and started shooting vigorously.

Hardly survived the winter

Hardly survived the winter

During the winter, bamboos were kept in their original undersized pots and they were not enjoying their warm and dry environment. Due to lack of light, autumn shoots became tall and fragile, most of them suffered at some point and their tops dried out or break – then dry out. Freezing temperature top killed test seedling that was kept outside in the ground, but when I pulled it out, I did notice some fresh roots and even emerging shoots. I’ll see if it can recover.
It all seems that Chimonocalamus pallens seedlings can withstand dry and hot conditions better than most similar clumpers (Borinda, Fargesia or Yushania), but will need a lot of light to continue with healthy growth. The second reason of their current condition was lack of soil in their pots. They shared pots that were shallow, with minimal space for their root system to establish. I’ll try to get them going again, when they recover I’ll plant them seperately into larger containers, now they are all together planted into aged compost.

Seems to like shooting in the fall

Seems to like shooting in the fall

Thorns are starting to emerge around the nodes

Thorns are starting to emerge around the nodes

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Cyperus alternifolius

Few months old Cyperus alternifolius seedling

Few months old Cyperus alternifolius seedling

Cyperus alternifolius seeds sown in the middle of March 2013 started sprouting after a couple of weeks and new plants continued to emerge for at least a month. Germination rate seemed to be terrible at first, but later it turned out, that most of 2 years old tiny seeds remained viable and sprouted. First week or two, seedlings remained extremely small and fragile, but with time, leaves grew larger and multiplied. Because I used old seeds and expected bad germination rate, all the seedlings ended up in one small plastic cup. With overcrowding that started to occur with time, I had to transplant seedlings soon after they got three or four leaves. I managed to keep their small roots by soaking the soil completely and pushing individual seedlings out using a toothpick. That way each seedling got a bit of soil with it around the roots which gave great results – none of them died off during transplant.

 
 
 

cp_seedlings

Seedlings on April 7th.

cp_ready_to_transplant

With days passing, more and more seedlings emerged. The strongest ones were picked out with a toothpick and transplanted.

cp_transplanted

Seedling in it’s own plastic cup. This time, I didn’t make drainage holes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Small seedlings were growing fast for their size and in only a couple of days, they were strong enough to go into individual pots. Placed under cheap Chinese cool white LED light, it was able to get at least some light. Rainy weather didn’t allow sunbathing behind the window.

Seedlings that got replanted, started to take off much faster than those that remained in original pot. Warmer weather finally allowed that they were placed outside. Soon, roots became apparent on transparent plastic cup again and I had to start preparing to move them into larger pots again. Plants started to grow shoots from gaps between lower leaves and original stem. Soon they became quite bushy and for their second time, ready to be transplanted. Cold rainy weather slowed down their growth considerably.

 

Seedlings on May 4th.

Seedlings on May 4th.

Seedlings on May 8th. The seedlings had to be placed into larger pots again.

Seedlings on May 8th. The seedlings had to be placed into larger pots again.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By the second half of May, it started elongating stems. Even with roots that started to get a bit overcrowded, strongest seedling continued to grow vigorously. I took this one inside during cold nights that drop well below 10°C.

May 21st.

May 21st.

Seedling is almost root-bound by now and will have to be transplanted into larger pot befor start of June.

Seedling is almost root-bound by now and will have to be transplanted into larger pot befor start of June.

seedling on May 21st

seedling on May 21st

‘Dusters’ started to grow scale like formations. With each additional day, plants are growing stronger. They are growing more and more stems that are getting taller and taller. I have a feeling, that every emerging shoot starts doing the duster thingie in short time. Sadly there’s still not enough warmth and sun exposure for the seedlings to really take off.  We’ll get there sooner or later. 😉

Cyperus alternifolius in the beginning of June.

Cyperus alternifolius in the beginning of June.

With warmer weather Cyperus alternifolius started to grow faster and needed to be transplanted from little plastic cup. I found small 5l bucket with a small hole on the bottom. I placed it inside another container filled with rain water and rusty nails. Water inside the plastic tub is keeping soil temperature more stable and prevent it to dry out. Nails made the water look orange with Iron oxide that will also help Cyperus alternifolius to remain healthy green.

Cyperus alternifolius shoots are getting thicker.

Cyperus alternifolius shoots are getting thicker.

Soon after transplant, new shoots started to appear. When plant received even more heat, growth further accelerated and it didn’t take long until first flowers started to emerge. At that point it was certain, it was not Cyperus Papyrus seeds I received at all! Seeds were supposed to be from larger sibling Cyperus Papyrus, but I ended up with Cyperus alternifolius instead. Flowers appeared on plant that was merely 20 cm tall, which came as a surprise, because Papyrus usually doesn’t flower in it’s first year.
I started researching a bit to find out what version of Cyperus I actually received. Flowers and overall plant shape was screaming Cyperus alternifolius (also known as: Cyperus involucratus, Umbrella Plant, Umbrella Papyrus or Umbrella Palm). It looks like I’ll have to go shopping again to get real giant Cyperus Papyrus seeds.

It seems that it can double its size in a week.

It seems that it can double its size in a week.

First flowers showed up unexpectedly

First flowers showed up unexpectedly

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Some flower buds didn’t turn into flowers, but instead, started forming small plants. Usually that happens if it gets sunk under water, but this one decided to multiply above water level. If I ever decide to divide it, there should be no problems.

Small plants instead of flowers!

Small plants instead of flowers!

One of many flowers.

One of many flowers.

Clump from one tiny seed in only a couple of months.

Clump from one tiny seed in only a couple of months.

hdr

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

In only a couple of months seedlings became large and well established. Most of them started to flower and some of them managed to grow small plants on top of their “heads”. Some of these small plants also started to flower, while still attached to the mother plant.

This plant is quite rewarding. It’s easy and fast to grow, looks great when it starts to flower and it’s really easy to divide it. Sadly it can’t handle Zone 7 winters, which means I’ll have to make sure it survives the winter inside.

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